India has become the second-biggest importer and manufacturer of fertiliser only after china in the world. This warns that nitrogen pollutants in floor and groundwater have reached “alarming levels”. Yet a shift far from chemical-primarily based agriculture is a far-off prospect, specifically in locations including Punjab wherein nitrogen content material is “very low” nearly everywhere.
soil degradation due to flooding is a serious concern.
The changing climate and uncertain rains and floods create a huge impact on soil health, it degrades the soil putting every kind of crop to waste. The floods in north east states, Kerala and north Karnataka are recent examples of flood-related issue which impacts soil degradation. Still, not all floods are bad for the soil, as seen in floods along the banks of the Ganga, Kosi, Brahmaputra and other water bodies taking birth in the Himalayas.
There, the gushing swash expiring from the mountains carries with it loosened alluvial soil, and not only wetlands over spreads but also replenishes flood tide plains with rich soil.
Soil degradation due to urban expansion planning:
Various factors such as floods, volcanoes and earthquakes are difficult to control as they are dependent on nature but there are human-induced factor-like deforestation, bad industrial waste handling, and urban expansion that are also highly responsible for soil erosion and loss of productive capacity.
Over the years the use of heavy fertilisers on soil is making the crop productivity uncertain for farmers making them scared to take the correct decision.
Rapid urbanisation in India in the last two decades has resulted in the growth of peri- urban areas and thereby the conversion of rural agricultural land into urban residential colonies. So land conversion and urbanisation in India have become one of the most contested policy issues as far as spatial planning is concerned.
Wrong industrial waste handling:
Industrial growth is pivotal for a country’s prosperity and economics to flourish. However, industrial growth should happen responsibly keeping the long-term sustainability in mind. In India, the practice of waste handling from industries is still a big problem for government to handle and makes it imperative to follow the guidelines as per the rules and regulations set by the Indian Government. Industrial waste most of the time openly defects in rivers & water bodies which are used for irrigation in many areas. This harsh chemical makes the land infertile faster than the fertiliser use.